The hottest paper industry is embarrassed

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The paper industry is embarrassed.

Chinese people, who have always been proud of the invention of papermaking, have to face such an embarrassing reality: on the one hand, the consumption of paper continues to grow, which will also provide an inexhaustible driving force for the extruder industry in China, and is becoming the most attractive paper consumption market. On the other hand, many structural contradictions restrict the modernization process of China's paper industry, making it difficult for many paper mills to eat this huge cake

recently, at the Inner Mongolia Huazhang paper industry development seminar held in Hohhot, domestic paper industry insiders and relevant economic experts jointly discussed the cross century development strategy of China's paper industry. Through the prediction of the market, the experts at the meeting believed that under the current buyer's market conditions, the paper industry is one of the few industries with total shortage, growing demand and considerable market potential in China. According to Wei Guohai, director of the planning and Development Department of the State Light Industry Bureau, from 1990 to now, the consumption of paper and paperboard has increased at a rate of 12% every year. In 1997, the domestic consumption of paper and paperboard was 32.58 million tons, ranking second in the world. The national per capita paper consumption is only about 25 kg, which is lower than the world per capita consumption of 55 kg, and is far inferior to the per capita consumption level of more than 300 kg in developed countries

the consumption demand potential of domestic paper in the future is huge, which is predicted by some experts in the paper industry and economy. By 2010, the consumption demand of paper and paperboard in China is about 60-70 million tons. Although the consumption has doubled in the next 10 years, the per capita consumption level is still not high. Even if the population growth factor is considered, the per capita consumption level will only be 50 kg at that time, which is equivalent to the world consumption level in 1996. In 1997, the domestic output of paper and paperboard was 27.44 million tons, which was lower than the consumption of 5.14 million tons. Production is far from meeting consumption. It can be seen that there is a huge market space in the paper market

although domestic paper production is also increasing year by year, it is always difficult to catch up with consumption demand. The growth of paper and paperboard consumption is greater than the growth of production. Consumption in 1996 increased by 15.7% over 1995, and consumption in 1997 increased by 6.3% over 1996, while production growth in the same period was 9.9% and 3.6% respectively. The gap between short supply and long demand was growing, and a large number of imported paper and paperboard had to be used to fill this market "gap". The volume of imported paper and paperboard has been 3.03 million tons since 1996, increased to 4.5 million tons in 1997, and soared to 5.77 million tons in 1998, resulting in a downward trend in the self-sufficiency rate of domestic paper. The self-sufficiency rate of domestic products fell from 89% in 1995 to 84% in 1997

foreign paper enterprises seem to be the biggest beneficiaries of the growing Chinese paper market. Zhang Xinping, industry insiders and relevant experts of China Paper Association pointed out that China's paper industry must solve the following prominent structural contradictions in order to shorten the gap with the world paper industry and become another important new economic growth point in China in the next century:

I The theory of inorganic organic hybrid reaction refers to the contradiction between the shortage of total market supply and the effective demand of product structure, and the lack of scientific and technological innovation in the research and development of higher-level fire protection functions of polyurethane materials. An important aspect of China's paper industry that is difficult to meet the market demand of the paper industry is the insufficient supply of high-grade paper products, a large backlog of low-grade products, and overproduction

second, the structure of papermaking raw materials is unreasonable. China's papermaking raw materials are mainly non wood fibers, and the proportion of wood pulp for papermaking is very small, with the proportion of wood pulp less than 10%. Compared with the international modern papermaking industry using more than 90% of wood pulp for papermaking, it is obviously unreasonable

third, the current enterprise structure with large quantity and small production scale has affected the development of China's paper industry towards modernization and economies of scale. China's paper industry enterprises have a small scale structure, so the scale efficiency is poor and the competitiveness is weak. In 1997, there were 1180 paper-making enterprises with an annual production capacity of more than 10000 tons, with an output of 18.58 million tons, accounting for 68% of the total output. Among them, there are more than 130 enterprises with an annual production capacity of more than 30000 tons, with an output of 6million tons, accounting for 22% of the total output. There are only 3 enterprises with an annual production capacity of more than 200000 tons, and only 30 enterprises with an annual production capacity of more than 100000 tons. The average annual output of China's existing paper-making enterprises is 5975 tons, which is far from the world average of 40000 tons

IV. the existing product structure does not adapt to the changes and market of the paper consumption market. There are only more than 600 kinds of paper and paperboard products in China, mainly medium and low-grade products. Compared with the level of more than 1000 high-grade products in developed countries, there is a big gap. With the technological progress of relevant industries and the upgrading of products, this product structure has not adapted to the changes and development of the paper consumption market, increasing the dependence on imported paper and paperboard

v. the technical equipment is backward. At present, most of the technical equipment of domestic paper enterprises are at the level before the 1970s, a small number are at the level of the 1980s, and some have reached the level of the 1990s, which is far from the international level

due to the current raw material structure, scale structure and technical equipment level, the wastewater pollution of China's paper industry is relatively serious. According to the 1996 environmental protection statistical bulletin, the paper-making enterprises at and above the county level discharged 2.125 billion tons of wastewater, accounting for 11% of the national industrial wastewater discharge, of which the standard discharge is only 14%. According to the national environmental protection requirements, by the year 2000, the paper-making enterprises will reach the discharge standard, and the task of pollution control is arduous

the experts at the meeting pointed out that the way out for China's paper industry is to adjust the raw material structure, product structure and enterprise scale structure, and strengthen pollution control at the same time. According to the industrial characteristics, it is the key to compete between China's paper industry and the international modern paper industry to establish large companies and groups that integrate forestry and paper with international competitiveness in the hands of producers. On the basis of adjusting the raw material structure and realizing the new raw material structure dominated by wood fiber, China's paper industry should be determined to rewrite the existing product structure and develop medium and high-grade paper products to meet the needs of domestic and foreign markets. First, we should vigorously develop short-term products in the market such as paper, high-grade information paper, medium and high-grade household paper, speed up the upgrading of cigarette paper, white paperboard and other products, improve the quality of all kinds of processing base paper, limit the development of low-quality cardboard, toilet paper and other unsalable products in the market, and make the product structure more reasonable through adjustment to meet the needs of multiple consumption levels. Second, based on the transformation of existing enterprises, we should increase investment in key products, significantly improve the concentration of production of key products, improve the technical content of products, and enhance the competitiveness of advantageous enterprises. Third, we should be determined to eliminate backward production processes and equipment

the world's modern paper industry is based on wood and makes full use of waste paper. The proportion of wood pulp accounts for more than 90%. Analyzing the reasons why the world's paper industry chooses wood pulp as the main source of paper, we can see the "congenital deficiencies" of China's paper industry. Weiguohai, director of the planning and Development Department of the National Light Industry Bureau, and other experts analyzed the "reasons" in detail:

first of all, the quality of wood fiber is relatively good. Almost all paper products can use wood as raw material, and wood fiber can be suitable for the production of all kinds of high-grade paper

secondly, wood is convenient for transportation and storage, which is suitable for large-scale production. As the main raw material of China's paper industry, wheat straw is produced year by year, but it is difficult to concentrate, and the transportation and storage costs are also high. As the papermaking industry is a technology intensive industry with significant scale benefits, taking wood as raw material can fully reflect the scale benefits. The pulping capacity of enterprises in Europe and the United States that mainly use wood pulping is generally 300000 tons. At present, the capacity of each new pulping production line in the world is 700000 tons, while the minimum scale of domestic straw pulp papermaking is 34000 tons. This huge difference has something to do with the structure of raw materials. In addition, with the progress of agricultural technology and the promotion of mechanized harvesting, the output of wheat straw as a by-product is getting lower and lower. As a large-scale production enterprise, the supply of raw materials should not be subject to other industries. Therefore, the use of wood as a more reliable raw material than wheat straw ensures the obvious advantage of building a unified trade logistics center in the city

third, from the perspective of pollution control, the alkali recovery rate of wood and paper industry in the world is about 98%, and the chemicals in the pulping process can be basically recovered, while the best alkali recovery rate of domestic straw pulp and paper industry is about 70%, and about 28% of the alkali cannot be recovered. The treatment cost of this part of unrecycled water is very high, about 1 yuan per ton of water treatment is required, and about 2 yuan is required for the use of deep-water wells. One ton of pulp consumes 200 tons of water, so enterprises with 100000 tons of pulp making capacity need about 20million yuan for wastewater treatment alone

based on wood, China's paper industry must start from the source of raw materials. How to adjust the abnormal raw material structure so as to revitalize China's paper industry as soon as possible, the China Paper Industry Association has put forward the goal of raw material structure adjustment, which is to achieve the goal of giving priority to wood fiber, strive to improve the proportion of wood fiber, and reasonably equip with new raw material structure of non wood fiber and secondary fiber. In order to achieve this goal, the China Paper Industry Association formulated and proposed the following plans:

first, actively study and formulate the forest pulp paper integration strategy, develop the wood pulp papermaking plan, and promote the development of wood pulp papermaking

second, make full use of both domestic and foreign wood resources. China can build large-scale paper mills solely by itself or encourage foreign investors to build joint ventures and cooperation at home and abroad. According to the needs of domestic product structure adjustment, we should make full use of cutting and processing surplus wood, intermediate cutting wood and wood chip pulping

III. actively develop domestic artificial fast-growing forests and high-yield afforestation bases, and gradually realize the 60% timber base of large-scale wood pulp and paper enterprises. At the same time, we can take a variety of cooperative ways to build fast-growing afforestation timber bases in foreign regions with conditions

IV. reasonably develop and utilize non wood fiber resources, mainly reed, bagasse, etc., consolidate and develop reed bases, improve their unit yield by transforming medium and low yield fields, cultivate new varieties, and improve fiber quality. The development of large reed pulping plants in Hunan, Jiangsu, Xinjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and other places with rich reed resources has reduced the importance of straw pulp ratio. On the premise of reaching the standard of pollution control, we should make rational use of grassland resources

v. expand the recycling and utilization of waste paper, and make the specific weight of waste pulp reach more than 35% by 2000. Expand the utilization of imported waste paper, and strengthen the recycling and utilization of domestic waste paper at the same time. Establish a domestic waste paper recycling and supply market system as soon as possible, and build large waste pulp mills in Shandong, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Fujian, Tianjin and coastal port areas to provide commercial waste pulp for paper mills. For some paper and paperboard varieties, we can learn from international experience and legislate that a certain proportion of waste pulp must be infiltrated

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